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Vol. 7, No. 4 Published: 30 December 2023


Review Articles

  • State-of-the-Art and Development Trend of Interventional Ultrasound in China
  • Yang Qi, MD, Dengsheng Sun, MD, Linyao Wang, MD, Jie Yu, MD, Ping Liang, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 313-320. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230049
  • Abstract ( 278 ) HTML ( 30 ) PDF ( 640 )   
  • Interventional ultrasound (IUS) is an important branch of modern minimally invasive medicine that has been widely applied in clinical practice due to its unique techniques and advantages. As a relatively emerging field, IUS has progressed towards standardization, precision, intelligence, and cutting-edge directions alone with more than 40 years of development, which is becoming increasingly important techniques in clinical medicine. This article will briefly review the development and advancement of IUS for diagnosis and treatment in China in the era of precision medicine from the aspects of artificial intelligence, virtual navigation, molecular imaging, and nanotechnology.

  • Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound LI-RADS: A Pictorial Review
  • Osama Mahmoud, BS, Ajay Makkena, BS, Corinne E. Wessner, MS, MBA, RDMS, Ji-Bin Liu, MD, John R. Eisenbrey, PhD, Andrej Lyshchik, MD, PhD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 321-332. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230041
  • Abstract ( 221 ) HTML ( 18 ) PDF ( 409 )   
  • The American College of Radiology has implemented the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) to help detect, interpret, and guide the management of suspected lesions on surveillance imaging for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. The classification of indeterminate nodules with a grading algorithm can be used for multiple imaging modalities (US, CT, and MRI) and incorporates multiple imaging features to appropriately classify observations with different likelihood of being HCC. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) LI-RADS has been fully implemented since 2017. The aim of this pictorial article is to provide a comprehensive review of CEUS LI-RADS utilization, discuss its advantages, and highlight areas for potential improvement.

  • Semi-supervised Learning for Real-time Segmentation of Ultrasound Video Objects: A Review
  • Jin Guo, MD, Zhaojun Li, PhD, Yanping Lin, PhD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 333-347. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230016
  • Abstract ( 173 ) HTML ( 17 ) PDF ( 395 )   
  • Real-time intelligent segmentation of ultrasound video object is a demanding task in the field of medical image processing and serves as an essential and critical step in image-guided clinical procedures. However, obtaining reliable and accurate medical image annotations often necessitates expert guidance, making the acquisition of large-scale annotated datasets challenging and costly. This presents obstacles for traditional supervised learning methods. Consequently, semi-supervised learning (SSL) has emerged as a promising solution, capable of utilizing unlabeled data to enhance model performance and has been widely adopted in medical image segmentation tasks. However, striking a balance between segmentation accuracy and inference speed remains a challenge for real-time segmentation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of research progress in real-time intelligent semi-supervised ultrasound video object segmentation (SUVOS) and offers insights into future developments in this area.

  • Arterial Stiffness and Cardiovascular Risk: The Role of Brachial Cuff-measured Index
  • Lin Jin, MD, Xinyi Li, BS, Mengjiao Zhang, MS, Xujie Zhang, BS, Chaoyu Xian, BS, Fuyou Liang, PhD, Zhaojun Li, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 348-355. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230045
  • Abstract ( 148 ) HTML ( 9 ) PDF ( 181 )   
  • Early detection of vascular disease is fundamental to the prevention and treatment of systemic vascular lesions. The timely identification of vascular damage can be achieved by comprehensively assessing the structural anomaly and/or functional degeneration of the vasculature. The assessment may to some extent indicate the long-term detrimental effects of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on vascular health. A key aspect in the evaluation of vascular function is the measurement of arterial stiffness. In 2012, the arterial velocity-pulse index (AVI) and arterial pressure-volume index (API) were introduced, which are noninvasively measured with a brachial cuff, and can reflect the status of arterial stiffness in both the aorta and the brachial artery. A large number of relevant studies have demonstrated the strong associations between AVI/API and various CVD risk factors, underlining the substantial relevance of the indices in CVD risk assessment. In this review, we provide a systematic review of the progresses made in brachial cuff-based measurements of arterial stiffness. In addition, we summarize the results of the recent studies focused on exploring the associations of AVI/API with relevant risk factors as well as their roles in CVD assessment.

  • Experience and Enlightenment of Handheld Ultrasound Applications in Multiple Scenarios Based on 5G Technology
  • Huihui Chai, MS, Xiaowan Bo, MD, Lehang Guo, MD, Chengzhong Peng, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 356-365. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230029
  • Abstract ( 160 ) HTML ( 4 ) PDF ( 208 )   
  • In the digital age, the miniaturization of portable ultrasound equipment has brought both opportunities and challenges to the healthcare industry. Handheld ultrasound (HHU) devices are tablet or smartphone-sized scanners that are highly portable, have lower costs, produce no harmful side effects, and consume less power, making them suitable for use in different environments. HHU devices are primarily designed for new users of ultrasound scanners with varying backgrounds to evaluate different structures of the human body in various clinical settings. HHU applications based on Fifth-generation (5G) wireless network communication and artificial intelligence (AI) technology provide new healthcare solutions. The main application scenarios for HHU devices currently include in-hospital use, remote medical treatment, emergency rescue, and home monitoring. These scenarios allow for rapid image acquisition and real-time image interpretation, thereby improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare, reducing medical costs, and improving the allocation and utilization of medical resources. However, there remain some technical challenges and weaknesses such as device safety, data privacy, and network stability. With the continuous integration of AI technology, HHU applications will find wider use and promotion, bringing about more opportunities and challenges to the healthcare industry. This article reviews the application experience and insights of 5G technology in the field of HHU, aiming to provide fresh evidence and references for future research and applications.

  • Review on Image Inpainting using Intelligence Mining Techniques
  • V. Merin Shobi, MCA, MPhil , ME, F. Ramesh Dhanaseelan, MSc, MTech , PhD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 366-372. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230007
  • Abstract ( 119 ) HTML ( 4 ) PDF ( 191 )   
  • Objective Inpainting is a technique for fixing or removing undesired areas of an image.

    Methods In present scenario, image plays a vital role in every aspect such as business images, satellite images, and medical images and so on.

    Results and Conclusion This paper presents a comprehensive review of past traditional image inpainting methods and the present state-of-the-art deep learning methods and also detailed the strengths and weaknesses of each to provide new insights in the field.

Original Research

  • A Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Cancer Risk Prediction System Based on Deep Hybrid Multi-feature Fusion Network
  • Yalin Wu, PhD, Qiaoli Ge, MM, Linyang Yan, PhD, Desheng Sun, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 373-380. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230023
  • Abstract ( 159 ) HTML ( 17 ) PDF ( 246 )   
  • Objective A non-invasive assessment of the risk of benign and malignant follicular thyroid cancer is invaluable in the choice of treatment options. The extraction and fusion of multidimensional features from ultrasound images of follicular thyroid cancer is decisive in improving the accuracy of identifying benign and malignant thyroid cancer. This paper presents a non-invasive preoperative benign and malignant risk assessment system for follicular thyroid cancer, based on the proposed deep feature extraction and fusion of ultrasound images of follicular thyroid cancer.

    Methods First, this study uses a convolution neural network (CNN) to obtain a global feature map of the image, and the fusion of global features cropped to local features to identify tumor images. Secondly, this tumour image is also extracted by googleNet and ResNet respectively to extract features and recognize the image. Finally, we employ an averaging algorithm to obtain the final recognition results.

    Results The experimental results show that the method proposed in this study achieved 89.95% accuracy, 88.46% sensitivity, 91.30% specificity and an AUC value of 96.69% in the local dataset obtained from Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, all of which are far superior to other models.

    Conclusion In this study, a non-invasive risk prediction system is proposed for ultrasound images of thyroid follicular tumours. We solve the problem of unbalanced sample distribution by means of an image enhancement algorithm. In order to obtain enough features to differentiate ultrasound images, a three-branched feature extraction network was designed in this study, and a balance of sensitivity and specificity is ensured by an averaging algorithm.

  • Ultrasonographic Identification of Muscle Atrophy in Hamstring Muscles after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair among Soccer Players: A Case-control Study
  • Sebastián Eustaquio Martín Pérez, MSc, Raúl Hernández García, PT, Alberto Brito Lorenzo, PT, Carlos Daniel Sabater Cruz, PT, Mario Herrera Pérez, PhD, Fidel Rodríguez Hernández, PhD, Kristin Briem, PhD, Isidro Miguel Martín Pérez, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 381-389. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230036
  • Abstract ( 367 ) HTML ( 211 ) PDF ( 411 )   
  • Objectives To measure the CSA of the HST musculature measured with ultrasonography in soccer players undergoing ACLR and compare limb differences with healthy controls.

    Methods A case-control study was performed with patients after anterior cruciate ligament repair (ACLR) and healthy controls in which cross-sectional areas (CSA) obtained using a model TE7 ultrasound machine (MINDRAY ®, USA) in B mode (4.2 to 13 MHz) with a multifrequency linear array transducer (L12-4S). Three CSA images were taken of the semitendinosus muscle (ST) and the long head of the biceps femoris (BFlh), at a distance of 30% and 70% of the ischial tuberosity insertion. Mean differences between groups were analyzed using SPSS v.20 (IBM®, USA), and statistical analyses were performed using non-parametric techniques to determine differences between groups (Student's t-test) and Cohen's correlation coefficient to quantify effect size.

    Results 14 ACLR operated 17 ± 5.4 months ago and 12 healthy controls (W = 6; M = 20M; 24.5 ± 3.92 years; BMI = 25.1 ± 2.32 kg/m2) were recruited. There were differences between groups in CSA-ST70 (Post-ACLR = 1.43 ± 1.029 cm2 vs Control 2.65 ± 0.664 cm2, T Student = -3.68, 95% CI [-Inf, -0.648], P < 0. 001, ES = -1.418), but not in CSA-ST30 (Post-ACLR = 8.42 ± 1.596 cm2 vs Control 9.16 ± 0.945 cm2, T Student = -1.535; 95% CI [-Inf, -0.0793], P = 0. 068, ES = -0.5607), CSA-BFlh30 (Post-ACLR = 8.79 ± 1.47 cm2 vs Control 8.87 ± 2.312 cm2, T Student = -0.123; 95% CI [-Inf, 1.1049], P = 0.452, ES = -0. 049) or CSA-BFlh70 (Post-ACLR = 6.91 ± 1.011 cm2 vs Control 7.01 ± 1.453 cm2, T Student = -0.214; 95% CI [-Inf, 0.6795], P = 0.416, ES = -0.0783).

    Conclusion Ultrasound measurement of the CSA can be an image marker to identify muscle weakness or atrophy that predicts functional loss early.

  • Evaluation of the Effect of Age on Median Nerve Cross-sectional Area: A Cross-sectional Study
  • Seyed Mansoor Rayegani, MD, Masume Bayat, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 390-393. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.220047
  • Abstract ( 77 ) HTML ( 12 ) PDF ( 153 )   
  • Objective This cross-sectional study was designed considering disagreements on the normal range of Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area (MNCSA) and its association with age.

    Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, the upper limbs of 98 healthy subjects (46 men and 52 women) were assessed bilaterally by sonography, and MNCSA was measured at the distal wrist crease.

    Results Mean MNCSA values for subjects older and younger than 40 were 11.25 mm2 and 10.21 mm2, respectively. The results showed that the MNCSA significantly increased after 40 years of age.

    Conclusion According to the present study's findings, advances in age can increase the MNCSA and affect the diagnostic accuracy of MNCSA measurement in CTS diagnosis.

  • The Value of VTTQ Combined with B-mode US for Distinguishing Benign from Malignant Breast Masses by Comparing with SE: A Clinical Research
  • Lujing Li, MD, Zuofeng Xu, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 394-400. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.220041
  • Abstract ( 91 ) HTML ( 4 ) PDF ( 91 )   
  • Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) combined with B-mode ultrasonograpgy (US), strain elastography (SE) combined with B-mode US and B-mode US alone in differentiating the properties of breast lesions.

    Methods A retrospective database was queried for 283 healthy subjects and 100 consecutive patients with 130 breast lesions. All the cases were examined by B-mode US, VTTQ and SE. Histological diagnosis was used as the reference standard. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) values of each data set was compared.

    Results Twenty-two lesions were determined as malignant and 108 as benign. The best cutoff point of VTTQ was 7.82 m/s. The AUC of B-mode US combined with VTTQ or SE was greater than that of B-mode US alone (0.913 or 0.918 vs. 0.797) (P = 0.007 and 0.012).

    Conclusion Both VTTQ and SE could give help to B-mode US in distinguishing benign from malignant breast lesions about elastography values. There was no difference between them.

  • Point of Care Ultrasound Training in Military Medical Student Curriculum
  • Bradley Havins, MD, Michael Nguyen, MS, Ryan Becker, MS, Chusila Lee, MS, Siri Magadi, MS, Choi Heesun, DO
  • 2023, 7 (4): 401-404. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230003
  • Abstract ( 99 ) HTML ( 5 ) PDF ( 212 )   
  • Objective VaveHealth is a company that developed an app-based POCUS (Point of Care Ultrasound) education platform. Our objective is to provide educators with insights into novel approaches to medical education by comparing the platform to PowerPoint-based education, the standard and current technique used to instruct medical students in the United States.

    Methods We used a non-inferiority study to assess if the app-based platform was not less efficacious than the current standard of PowerPoint-based education. Thirty-three military medical students were provided with app-based or PowerPoint-based education for instructions on performing a focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST exam). Physicians evaluated each image and assigned a score from 1-5. The final scores were the average of all views. In addition, a two-sample t-test of the final scores and each view of the FAST was used to measure whether the VaveHealth platform was non-inferior to a PowerPoint-based model.

    Results Overall, the VaveHealth group had lower average scores on each view and a lower average total score. There was no statistically significant difference in overall scores (VaveHealth = 7.65, PowerPoint = 9.04, P = 0.07). Subgroup analysis showed no statistically significant difference in student performance in the views of the splenorenal recess (VaveHealth score = 1.60, PowerPoint score = 1.65, P = 0.42), hepatorenal recess (VaveHealth score = 2.45, PowerPoint score = 3.00, P = 0.11), and suprapubic (VaveHealth score = 2.10, PowerPoint score = 2.46, P = 0.23) regions. In the subxiphoid region, students in the VaveHealth had a statistically significantly lower average score (VaveHealth score = 1.70, PowerPoint score = 2.08, P = 0.04).

    Conclusion VaveHealth education is not a viable alternative to traditional PowerPoint education for POCUS training based on the lower raw scores and statistically significantly lower scores on one of the views of the FAST exam.

Case Reports

  • The Value of CEUS in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report
  • Yiming Li, BM, Jing Xiao, MD, Fang Xie, MD, Yu Lin, BM, Mingbo Zhang, MD, Yukun Luo, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 412-415. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.220027
  • Abstract ( 109 ) HTML ( 20 ) PDF ( 103 )   
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (PSCCT) is a rare clinical disease characterized by rapid growth, high invasiveness, and a poor prognosis. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted due to throat pain and dysphagia. Ultrasound revealed a calcified hypoechoic mass in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, measuring approximately 35.3 ml. Ultrasound and PET-CT both indicated high suspicion of malignancy. The patient underwent contrast-enhanced US-guided biopsy, and the pathological results revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. CEUS was performed regularly during the Chemotherapy combined with pembrolizumab (PD-1) treatment courses. The vital area was significantly reduced with neither recurrence nor cervical lymph node metastasis. Surgical resection and chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy had a significant treatment effect in this case. CEUS is helpful for diagnosis confirmation, biopsy guidance and efficacy evaluation and has important clinical application value.

  • Robot-assisted Teleultrasound-guided Hemostasis and Hematoma Catheterization and Drainage for Osteoporosis Pelvic Fracture with Giant Hematoma and Active Bleeding
  • Keyan Li, MD, Ye Peng, MD, Yingying Chen, MD, Zhaoming Zhong, MD, Yulong Ma, MD, Tao Yao, MD, Lihai Zhang, MD, Faqin Lv, MD
  • 2023, 7 (4): 416-419. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.230034
  • Abstract ( 105 ) HTML ( 11 ) PDF ( 237 )   
  • This paper reports a case of closed reduction internal fixation of pelvic fracture and minimally invasive hemostasis procedure and hematoma catheterization and drainage for the active pelvic bleeding site and giant hematoma, guided by a robot-assisted teleultrasound. In this case, the robot-assisted teleultrasound-guided minimally invasive interventional hemostasis and catheterization utilized a partial master-slave approach. It was preliminarily confirmed that robot-assisted teleultrasound-guided minimally invasive hemostasis and puncture catheterization for hematoma were accurate and effective. The robot-assisted teleultrasound overcomes the reliance on physician experience in ultrasound-guided interventional diagnostics and treatment, and promoting the use of minimally invasive "visualized" technology across any distance.

  • Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms Involving the Testis: A Case Report
  • Nianyu Xue, MM, Shengmin Zhang, BS
  • 2023, 7 (4): 420-422. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2023.220025
  • Abstract ( 79 ) HTML ( 8 ) PDF ( 106 )   
  • Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms are relatively rare. Following rupture of a mucinous neoplasms of the appendix, mucus can implant into the scrotum along the congenital or acquired inguinal space. We report a case of a testicular mucinous neoplasm with no preoperative abdominal lesions. Scrotal ultrasound showed an irregular mass in the right testis and inguinal area, with uneven echogenicity (stripe hyperechoic layered distribution) and no obvious blood flow signals. Ultrasound diagnosis was suspected as mucinous neoplasm. Postoperative pathology was confirmed to be low-grade mucinous neoplasm of the testis. Subsequently, the surgeon performed laparoscopic exploration and found that the appendix tumor had ruptured and the peritoneal cavity was implanted, and an appendectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology confirmed a low-grade appendix mucinous neoplasm. The evaluation and discovery of a scrotal mucinous neoplasm requires exploration of the appendix with ultrasound imaging. Even if the inner diameter of the appendix is normal but the presence of ascites, appendiceal mucinous neoplasms need to be considered.

Open Access, Peer-reviewed

ISSN 2576-2516 (Online)

ISSN 2576-2508 (Print)

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