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Vol. 5, No. 1 Published: 30 March 2021

Consensus and Guidelines

Review Articles

  • Ultrasound Radiomics in Breast Cancer - A Literature Review
  • Yi Chen, MB, Xia Liu, MB, Run Wang, MD, Xiaona Lin, MM, Jieyu Zhong, MD, Yan Chen, MM, Huali Cai, MB, Yongbin Li, MM, Zhicheng Li, MD, Zhengming Hu, MD, Desheng Sun, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 12-17. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200052
  • Abstract ( 253 ) HTML ( 14 ) PDF ( 272 )   
  • As an emerging technology, radiomics has shown potential values in the field of healthcare. CT/MRI was preferred in previous radiomics researches because its images are easy to be standardized. And only until recently, an increasing number of studies focusing on the application of ultrasound radiomics in predicting molecular subtypes, identifying of malignant lesions, reactions to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer have been published. The purpose of this review is to summarize the steps of radiomics used in the field of breast cancer. In conclusion, ultrasound radiomics is a promising technology in diagnosing and monitoring breast cancer and further assisting physicians in patient management.

  • Current Status and Advances in Imaging Evaluation of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Breast Cancer
  • Yixin Hu, MD, Fei Li, MD, Jianhua Zhou, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 18-25. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.190036
  • Abstract ( 249 ) HTML ( 8 ) PDF ( 377 )   
  • It is particularly important to evaluate the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. This article reviews the current status and progress of imaging evaluations regarding the efficacy of NAC in women with breast cancer, including mammography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET-CT) and radiomics. Each imaging method has value for evaluating the efficacy of NAC for breast cancer, but certain defects and limitations. Therefore, the optimal selection will employ a combination of multiple imaging methods that will not only benefit patients but also avoid the unnecessary waste of medical resources.

Original Research

  • Comparative Features of Carotid and Cerebral Hemodynamics between Adult Rhesus Macaques and Humans
  • Yumei Liu, MD, PhD, Yang Hua, MD, Jingzhi Li, MD, PhD, Yunlu Tao, MD, Di Wu, MD, PhD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 26-31. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200027
  • Abstract ( 283 ) HTML ( 9 ) PDF ( 295 )   
  • Objective: Although rhesus macaques and human beings share many fundamental biological characteristics, including underlying genes and physiological processes, the similarity and difference of cerebrovascular hemodynamic have not been well investigated. We aimed to examine and compare the intracranial and extracranial hemodynamics between these two species.
    Methods: A total of 10 adult male rhesus and 20 age-matched healthy men were recruited in this study. The somatometric measurements (BMI, HR, and BP) and ultrasonography examinations (carotid arteries and middle cerebral artery) were performed on both groups.
    Results: We found a few similarities in somatometric measurements (BMI, waist-hip ratio and mean artery pressure), mean velocity ratios of internal carotid artery (ICA)/external carotid artery (ECA) and ICA/vertebral artery (VA), and the resistance index both in ICA and ECA between rhesus macaques and humans. However, faster HR (103 ± 12 vs. 73 ± 14 beat/min, P < 0.01), higher pulse pressure (89.5 ± 8.9 vs. 48.1 ± 6.3 mmHg, P < 0.01), smaller diameter ratio of bilateral ICA/ECAdia (P < 0.01), elevated middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (P < 0.01) and higher cerebrovascular resistance (2.42 ± 0.59 vs. 1.54 ± 0.35, P < 0.01) were found in rhesus when compared with humans.
    Conclusions: This study leads to a better understanding of cerebral neuroanatomy in rhesus macaques, and it has several important implications for future cerebrovascular translational researches.

  • Evaluating the Curative Effect of Ultrasound-guided Sclerotherapy with Foam Lauromacrogol for Uterine Fibroids
  • Juan Gao, MS, Yanggui Xie, MS, Bo Liang, MD, Xiaoqin Qian, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 32-38. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.190030
  • Abstract ( 256 ) HTML ( 5 ) PDF ( 428 )   
  • Objective: To evaluate the curative effect of lauromacrogol foam sclerotherapy of uterine fibroids via transvaginal ultrasound-guided injection.
    Methods: Thirty premenopausal women with a total of thirty-one uterine fibroids were recruited consecutively and underwent transvaginal 3D-Power Doppler Angiography (PDA) at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months. Written informed consent was obtained from all of the patients. The changes in the fibroid 3D volume and relationships between the fibroid location and blood supply were analyzed. The relief of clinical symptoms and improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQL) were evaluated using the uterine fibroid symptom and quality-of-life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire before and after treatment for 6 months; adverse events were also assessed.
    Results: The mean baseline volumes ± SD were 61.2 ± 71.5 cm3 (range, 4.1 cm3 - 340.4 cm3) for the dominant fibroid. The mean values of percentage reduction in fibroid volume at 1, 3 and 6 months were 23.9% (range, 5.2% - 42.1%; 95%CI, 20.6% - 27.3%), 43.4% (range, 21.8% - 67.4%; 95%CI, 39.0% - 47.8%), and 60.0% (range, 31.8% - 83.2%; 95%CI, 55.2% - 64.9%), respectively, and the reduction was correlated with the location and blood supply. Additionally, the blood flow to the fibroids was markedly decreased. The clinical symptoms were greatly alleviated or even completely resolved, and the HRQL was notably improved (P < 0.001). Mild abdominal pain, paleness, vomiting, and cold sweat were most commonly reported adverse effects.
    Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy of uterine fibroids with foam lauromacrogol is a simple, safe and useful method with a wide application prospect.

  • A New-Designed Microwave Ablation System: Testing in ex vivo and in vivo Liver Model
  • Danni He, MS, Qiao Ji, MD, Huitong Lin, MD, Xuankun Liang, MM, Lujing Li, MM, Fengping Liang, MM, Xianxiang Wang, MM, Kun Yuan, MS, Zuofeng Xu, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 39-46. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200014
  • Abstract ( 249 ) HTML ( 6 ) PDF ( 263 )   
  • Objective: The present study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of a newly designed microwave ablation (MWA) system in ex vivo and in vivo liver model.
    Methods: A new MWA system (HRMW-01, Hengrui Medical, Guangzhou, China) was tested on porcine liver ex vivo with different parameter settings (50-70 W for 5-20 min). Ablation volums were measured on the gross specimens. In an in vivo study, MWA was performed at 60 W for 5 min in canine liver. Ablation volumes were identified and measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) 1 w after the ablation. All animals underwent routine hematological, biochemical, and coagulation tests before ablation at 1 d and 1 w after ablation. For comparison, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed using a Cool-tip system (Valleylab, Boulder, CO, USA) with an automated power setting for 12 min in both ex vivo and in vivo studies.
    Results: In ex vivo studies, the mean volumes of MWA coagulation ranged from 27.8 ± 7.3 cm3 to 144.6 ± 35.9 cm 3 and increased with ablation duration and power output. MWA was prone to creating larger volume but less spherical ablation shape than RFA (P < 0.05). In in vivo studies, MWA created larger ablation volumes with shorter ablation time compared to RFA (P < 0.05). Laboratory data showed significantly higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels 1 d after ablation than based line levels (P < 0.05) while the levels decreased close to pre-ablation levels 1 w after ablation (P > 0.05).
    Conclusion: The newly designed MWA system is safe and more efficient than a commonly used RFA system. However, further clinical studies are warranted.

Case Reports

  • Preoperative Diagnosis of Ovarian Pregnancy by Transvaginal Ultrasound: A Case Report
  • Lijuan Sun, MD, Hui Li, MS, Juhong Liu, MS, Cuixia Guo, MS, Qingqing Wu, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 51-53. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200015
  • Abstract ( 321 ) HTML ( 14 ) PDF ( 462 )   
  • Primary ovarian pregnancy is rare in the classifications of ectopic pregnancy with an incidence of 0.5-3% of all ectopic gestations. The surgical management of ovarian pregnancy is different from the operation of salpingocyesis. Preoperative diagnosis in early pregnancy can help to guide the optimal management. We have reported the case of a 37- year-old woman who presented with a naturally conceived ovarian pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound was used in this patient, and made the correct diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy before surgery. We found that transvaginal ultrasound can be helpful in the diagnosis of the location of ectopic pregnancies.

  • Ultrasound Diagnosis of Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review
  • Pengchao Zheng, MS, Liang Sang, MD, Yinyan Li, MD, Huipeng Wang, MD, Zhiguang Chen, MS, Yumeng Li, MS, Xuemei Wang, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 54-57. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200012
  • Abstract ( 251 ) HTML ( 5 ) PDF ( 278 )   
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) arising from the thyroid gland is an unusual entity with a lower incidence among all thyroid malignancies. It has an extremely aggressive phase and an overall poor prognosis. PSCC of the thyroid is commonly treated with surgical excision, followed by additional resection for tumor recurrence. We describe here a rare case report of a male patient who had complained of neck swelling and dysphagia for 6 months. Conventional ultrasonography showed a huge suspicious mass characterized as being heterogeneous hypoechoic, microlobulating, and solid with blurred margins and microcalcifications and with a seemingly defective thyroid capsule; color Doppler flow imaging showed the patient had little blood at the margins, and power Doppler examination was noted with patterns II of blood blow. Real-time ultrasound elasticity was performed to improve accuracy in predicting the malignancy of the mass, and ultimately, the carcinoma was definitely diagnosed as PSCC with the ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. When pathologist conducted a comprehensive review of the specimens, immunohistochemistry showed nests of tumor cells showing positive immune-reactivity for P63, CK19 (+), and CK5/6 (+) and negative for TTF-1 and thyroglobuin. Herein, we report the findings of conventional ultrasonography and real-time ultrasound elastography of a rare case of PSCC.

  • Microwave Ablation of Colorectal Liver Metastases Guided by US-PET/CT Fusion Imaging: A Case Report
  • Tong Zhang, MD, Wenzhao Liang, MD, Yuanyuan Song, MD, Zhengmin Wang, MD, Dezhi Zhang, MD
  • 2021, 5 (1): 58-62. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200002
  • Abstract ( 231 ) HTML ( 8 ) PDF ( 270 )   
  • Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and liver metastases are highly prevalent among patients with the condition. Many patients are not candidates for radical surgery due to the timing of diagnosis; therefore, local treatments, such as ablation, have received considerable attention among clinicians and researchers. Here, we report the case of a patient who was treated successfully using ultrasound-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (US-PET/CT) fusion image-guided microwave ablation (MWA) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). This technique combines the individual advantages of ultrasound and PET/CT and minimizes the effects of their limitations. We conclude that image-guided ablation therapy is an important approach to treating CRLM. Using US-PET/CT fusion images may represent a new image-guidance method for ablation therapy of CRLM.

Open Access, Peer-reviewed

ISSN 2576-2516 (Online)

ISSN 2576-2508 (Print)

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