Advanced Ultrasound in Diagnosis and Therapy ›› 2023, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (3): 254-259.doi: 10.37015/AUDT.2023.230033

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Systematic Approaches and Designs for the Optimal Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Nodules via Fine Needle Aspiration

Jian-Quan Zhang, PhDa,*(), Lei Yan, MDb   

  1. a The Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Shanghai International Medical Center, Shanghai, China
    b The Department of Ultrasound, Suzhou 100 Hospital, China
  • Received:2023-04-29 Revised:2023-07-28 Accepted:2023-08-15 Online:2023-09-30 Published:2023-10-09
  • Contact: Jian-Quan Zhang, PhD,


With the increasing utilization of semi-thyroidectomy and rapid advancements in ultrasound-guided thermal ablation therapy for the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and PTC cervical lymph node metastasis, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has emerged as the predominant approach for the pre-treatment cytopathologic diagnosis of PTC. Numerous expert consensuses and practice guidelines have delineated the acquisition of sufficient, high-quality cellular specimens for cytological examination. However, new challenges keep emerging in the real-world practice of thyroid FNAB, primarily stemming from the perceptions and expertise of physicians or technicians who perform FNAB. The aim of this study was to delineate the key deficiencies in specimen collection during FNAB, elucidate principles of systematic thinking, and propose preventive measures for these issues, along with a range of innovative concepts and technical approaches. Effectively addressing these concerns will enhance FNAB implementation and facilitate advancements in novel therapeutic modalities, such as thermal ablation, to ameliorate prognosis.

Key words: Thyroid nodule; Cervical metastatic lymph node; Fine-needle aspiration biopsy; 9 Plus X-needle passages puncture modality; Liquid isolation method