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Archives
Vol. 6, No. 1 Published: 30 March 2022

Review Article

  • Clinical Applications of Crystal Vue Technology: A Review
  • Shijing Song, MD, Qingqing Wu, MD, Jingjing Wang, MD, Jinghua Li, MD, Dan Yan, MD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 1-6. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200067
  • Abstract ( 129 ) HTML ( 17 ) PDF ( 135 )   
  • Three-dimensional (3D) imaging plays an important role in the construction of normal anatomy and abnormal structures. The 3D images can be obtained through computed tomography, magnetic resonance, ultrasonography (US) and other technologies with different values and prospects. 3D-US imaging has unique advantages such as being radiation-free, time-saving and cost-effective. The Crystal Vue is a novel 3D-US rending technology that provides valuable information in several obstetrical and gynaecological studies. This review focuses on the application of Crystal Vue technology in the evaluation of foetal skeleton, maxillofacial region, central nervous system, digestive tract and abnormally invasive placenta, cervical pessary, and ureteral stones.

Original Research

  • Etiologies and Adverse Outcomes of Fetuses with Short Femur Length Based on Proportion and Percentile Categorization
  • Jianan Li, BS, Hong Xu, MD, Mei Shen, BS, Shiyu Li, BS, Longxia Wang, MD, Yanping Lu, MD, Qiuyang Li, MD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 7-13. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.210015
  • Abstract ( 100 ) HTML ( 20 ) PDF ( 102 )   
  • Objective: To compare the etiologies and adverse outcomes of pregnancies with short fetal femur length (FL) categorized based on relative proportion and percentile placement.
    Methods: Fetuses (n = 254) with short FL measured by ultrasound were classified into four groups: severe and disproportionate short FL (group A); severe and proportionate short FL (group B); mild and disproportionate short FL (group C); mild and proportionate short FL (group D). Etiologies and outcomes of pregnancies were compared between groups.
    Results: A larger percentage of skeletal dysplasia occurred in group A (28.57%) than in the other three groups (group B: 1.85%; group C: 4.08%; group D: 0). Groups A and B also had higher rates (group A: 40.82%, group B:33.33%) of fetal growth restriction (FGR) than groups C and D (group C: 4.08%; group D:3.92%). No difference in chromosomal and genetic anomalies was detected among groups (P = 0.307); however, the rate of chromosomal and genetic testing in group A was higher than in group D (P = 0.001). Group A (57.14%) had a significantly lower rate of live birth than the other three groups, and group D (98.04%) had a higher live birth rate than groups B (87.04%) and C (83.67%). Considering only living fetuses, higher rates of preterm birth (P < 0.001), low birth weight (LBW) (P < 0.001), neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission or pediatric hospital referral (P = 0.004), Apgar score (1 min/5 min) ≤7 (P < 0.001) and fetal distress or neonatal asphyxia (P = 0.004) were found in group A compared to group D.
    Conclusion: Fetuses with severe and disproportionate short FL should be flagged for possible skeletal dysplasia. Fetuses with severe short FL should be watched for FGR prenatally. Invasive prenatal tests are recommended for fetuses with severe and disproportionate FL but not recommended for those with mild and proportionate short FL. Outcomes of fetuses with severe and disproportionate short FL were worse than that of fetuses with mild and proportionate short FL.

  • Shear Wave Dispersion Imaging for Measuring Carotid Elasticity and Viscosity
  • Zhaojun Li, MD, PhD, Cuiqin Shen, MS, Qingqing Chen, MB, Lei Sha, MB, Xianghong Luo, MD, PhD, Lianfang Du, MD, PhD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 14-21. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200071
  • Abstract ( 101 ) HTML ( 6 ) PDF ( 157 )   
  • Objective: To assess the viscoelasticity of the carotid artery using shear wave dispersion Imaging and to determine the relevant factors.
    Methods: Ninety volunteers were recruited and divided into elder group and young group. Shear wave dispersion (SWD) imaging was applied to measure carotid viscoelasticity. The other arterial parameters, including arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), inner diameter (CD), intima-medium thickness (CIMT), peak systolic velocity (PSV), mean flow velocity (MFV), and velocity time integral (VTI) of the common carotid artery (CCA) were also recorded by using ultrasound measurement.
    Results: Measurements showed the SWD were lower, while CD, CIMT and PWV were higher in the elder group than those of young group. However, SWD was negatively correlated with VTI, and PSV respectively (r = -0.492 and -0.533, all P < 0.05). SWD was also positively correlated with MFV (r = 0.354, P < 0.05). In elder group, SWD was negatively correlated with PSV and PWV, respectively (r = -0.372 and -0.422, all P < 0.05) while in young group, SWD positively correlated with CD, CIMT and MFV (r = 0.531, 0.462 and 0.479 respectively, and all P < 0.05).
    Conclusion: SWD imaging shown relationship with ultrasound parameters of carotid artery and has a potential for assessment of arterial viscoelasticity.

Case Reports

  • Ultrasound-guided Microwave Ablation of Adenolymphoma of Parotid Gland: A Case Report
  • Xiaohui Ji, MD, Juanjuan Li, MD, Dongxia Gao, MD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 22-25. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200046
  • Abstract ( 96 ) HTML ( 16 ) PDF ( 93 )   
  • Adenolymphoma is the second most common benign parotid tumor after pleomorphic adenoma. Although microwave ablation (MWA) has been proved to be effective for benign breast and thyroid nodules, there are few studies on ablation of adenolymphoma of parotid gland. An 82-year-old male with adenolymphoma of bilateral parotid gland treated with ultrasound-guided MWA. After 12 months of follow-up, the volume of bilateral parotid nodules was significantly reduced without recurrence and obvious complications. In conclusion, ultrasound-guided MWA is a safe and effective method for patients with parotid adenolymphoma who cannot tolerate surgery.

  • Ectopic Pregnancy Implanted in the Diaphragm: A Case Report and Literature Review
  • Jing Ma, MD, Yuchen Wang, MD, Xiaohui Sun, MD, Aiqing Zhang, MD, Bo Zhao
  • 2022, 6 (1): 26-28. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200065
  • Abstract ( 152 ) HTML ( 17 ) PDF ( 120 )   
  • Abdominal pregnancy is a rare occurrence and the location is hardly seen in the upper abdomen. We described a case of a 34-year-old female presenting with upper abdominal pain and reflex sensitivity in the right shoulder. Ultrasound examination revealed a mass under the diaphragm which was suspected to be a liver abscess. The result of an enhanced CT scan was suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy between the diaphragm and right liver lobe. However, Laparoscopic surgery was performed and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of diaphragmatic pregnancy. By describing this case, we aim to share the value of patients with consistent upper abdominal pain and elevated serum hCG level, a thorough examination of the upper abdomen and pelvic with US as well as CT or MRI is crucial for timely diagnosis.

  • Neurofibromatosis with Intrahepatic, Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Involvement: A Case Report and Literature Review
  • Danqing Huang, MS, Min Tang, MS, Aimei Li, MD, Decai Yu, MD, Jun Chen, MD, Min Wu, MS, Wenping Wang, MD, Wentao Kong, MD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 29-32. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2021.200066
  • Abstract ( 65 ) HTML ( 7 ) PDF ( 96 )   
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which can primarily cause neurocutaneous manifestations. We herein present a rare case of periportal neurofibromatosis with intrahepatic, retroperitoneal and pelvic involvement. The patient underwent abdominal ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging, and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Despite these various imaging features, a diagnosis of lymphomas could not be entirely excluded. The patient therefore underwent US-guided biopsy, and a diagnosis of intrahepatic neurofibromatosis was made. Through retrospective analysis of this case along with literature review, we concluded that distributing along the Glisson’s sheath may be a characteristic in the diagnosis of NF that involves liver.

Technical Developments

  • Distributed Cloud-based Ultrasound Platform: Innovative Pathway to Develop Ultrasound Imaging System
  • Jianqiao Zhou, MD
  • 2022, 6 (1): 33-37. DOI:10.37015/AUDT.2022.220002
  • Abstract ( 122 ) HTML ( 10 ) PDF ( 165 )   
  • The current medical ultrasound imaging device is mainly divided into console ultrasound device and portable ultrasound device. In this article, a new concept along with an innovative pathway to develop ultrasound imaging devices, namely distributed cloud-based ultrasound system (DCUS), was proposed. In DCUS, the ultrasound probes from multiple terminals are used to complete the transmission and reception as well as analog-to-digital conversion of ultrasonic signals, and upload the original radio frequency (RF) signals or in-phase and quadrature (IQ) signals to the cloud server through ultra-bandwidth high-speed communication technology, while the centralized cloud server platform finishes processing of ultrasonic signals and transmits and distributes ultrasound imaging to each related terminal in real time. Various artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms can also be deployed on the cloud-based platform to achieve AI-powered imaging optimization, protocol standardization, and assisted diagnosis. Thus, by utilizing new cloud-based platform and super-high transmission technology and combining the advantages of console ultrasound and portable ultrasound systems with flexibility, high imaging quality and intelligent features, DCUS could become whole new ultrasound system for medical imaging applications in foreseeable future.

Expert Commentary

Open Access, Peer-reviewed

ISSN 2576-2516 (Online)

ISSN 2576-2508 (Print)

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