ADVANCED ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY ›› 2022, Vol. 6 ›› Issue (3): 112-118.doi: 10.37015/AUDT.2022.210034

• Original Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Role of Lung Ultrasound in Diagnosing and Differentiating Transient Tachypnea of Newborn and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Preterm Neonates

Srinivasan S, MDa,*(), Neeti Aggarwal, MDa, Sushma Makhaik, MDa, Anupam Jhobta, MDa   

  1. a Department of Radiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • Received:2021-11-01 Revised:2021-11-22 Online:2022-09-30 Published:2022-08-08
  • Contact: Srinivasan S, MD, E-mail:srinivasan1985@hotmail.com

Abstract:

Objective: Transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are the most common causes of respiratory distress among preterm neonates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of lung ultrasonography (LUS) for diagnosing and differentiating TTN and RDS in preterm neonates.

Methods: This was a prospective single center study. From January 2020 to June 2021 a total of 114 preterm neonates who were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with symptoms of respiratory distress within 6 hours of birth were subjected to clinical examination, laboratory testing, chest x-ray (AP and lateral view’s) and LUS. Their clinical course was closely monitored. On the basis of final diagnosis made on day three of admission they were divided into two groups, 37 diagnosed with TTN and 61 with RDS. Patients diagnosed with other conditions including neonatal pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome etc. were excluded from analysis. LUS findings in RDS and TTN were analyzed and compared to each other.

Results: Pulmonary edema manifesting as alveolo-interstitial syndrome, double lung point and less commonly as white out lungs in absence of consolidation had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing TTN. A combination of three signs of consolidation with air or fluid bronchograms, white out lungs and absent spared areas has a 100% sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RDS. Double lung point was seen only in infants suffering from TTN while consolidation with air or fluid bronchograms was only seen in cases of RDS.

Conclusion: Lung ultrasound can accurately diagnose and reliably differentiate TTN and RDS in preterm neonates. Hence LUS can become an initial screening tool in NICU.

Key words: Respiratory distress syndrome; Transient tachypnea of newborn; Lung ultrasonography; Neonatal intensive care unit